[the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation, can also be achieved with repetitive thought & movement … ie body-mind, as shown by Hunt, Lipton, Myss, Ornstein, Schwartz … although the authors recognize that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, they maintain the therapeutic approach to finding external applied techniques, rather than exploring the power of the mind to effect transcranial magnetic stimulation with repeated thought and movement … em]
Chris Fraser, Maxine Power, Shaheen Hamdy, John Rothwell, David Hobday, Igor Hollander, Pippa Tyrell, Anthony Hobson, Steven Williams, and David Thompson, Driving Plasticity in Human Adult Motor Cortex Is Associated with Improved Motor Function after Brain Injury, Neuron 34:831-840, 2002. Changes in somatosensory input can remodel human cortical motor organization, yet the input characteristics that promote reorganization and their functional significance have not been explored. … belief that harnessing plasticity may be one method to improve recovery of human function following brain injury … there has been no direct demonstration in man … relevant to clinical rehabilitation … [depends how much background reading was done … Hunt, Lipton, Myss, Ornstein, Schwartz are just a few researchers who have explored plasticity of human brain … em] Introduction … aim of this study was to explore the possible link between physiologic cortical reorganization and its practical application to clinical rehabilitation … Conclusion … sensory induced changes in corticobulbar excitability provide the strongest evidence yet for functionally relevant driven plasticity … [means get moving and changes will occur. em]
Siebner HR, Rothwell J. Sobell , Transcranial magnetic stimulation: new insights into representational cortical plasticity. Exp Brain Res. 2003 Jan;148(1):1-16. Epub 2002 Nov 5. Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, 8-11 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org In the last decade, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used increasingly as a tool to explore the mechanisms and consequences of cortical plasticity in the intact human cortex. Because the spatial accuracy of the technique is limited, we refer to this as plasticity at a regional level. Currently, TMS is used to explore regional reorganization in three different ways.
First, it can map changes in the pattern of connectivity within and between different cortical areas or their spinal projections. Important examples of this approach can be found in the work on motor cortex representations following a variety of interventions such as immobilization, skill acquisition, or stroke.
Second, TMS can be used to investigate the behavioural relevance of these changes. By applying TMS in its “virtual lesion” mode, it is possible to interfere with cortical function and ask whether plastic reorganization within a distinct cortical area improves function.
Third, TMS can be used to promote changes in cortical function. This is achieved by using repetitive TMS (rTMS) to induce short-term functional reorganization in the human cortex. [In other words – repeat, repeat, repeat. em] … magnitude and the direction of rTMS-induced plasticity depend on extrinsic factors (i.e. the variables of stimulation such as intensity, frequency, and total number of stimuli) … [novel stimuli produce ‘novelty’ peptides that speed healing. em]
Fraser C, Power M, Hamdy S, Rothwell J, Hobday D, Hollander I, Tyrell P, Hobson A, Williams S, Thompson D. Driving plasticity in human adult motor cortex is associated with improved motor function after brain injury. Neuron. 2002 May 30;34(5):831-40.
University Department of Gastroenterology, Salford M6 8HD, UK.
Changes in somatosensory input [doing things differently em] can remodel human cortical motor organization, yet the input characteristics that promote reorganization and their functional significance have not been explored … we show with transcranial magnetic stimulation that sensory-driven reorganization of human motor cortex is highly dependent upon the frequency, intensity, and duration of stimulus applied … input to the human adult brain can be programmed to promote beneficial changes in neuroplasticity and function after cerebral injury.[it can also be done with thought and movement! em]
Sandyk R, Chronic Relapsing multiple sclerosis: a case of rapid recovery by application of weak electromagnetic fields. Int J Neurosci Jun 82(3-4):223-42, 1995. Neurocommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury CT 069111 USA
… application of 2 successive treatments of pulsed electromagnetic fields(EMFs) … patient experienced immediate improvement in symptoms, most dramatically, balance, gait, speech and level of energy … points to the unique capacity of externally applied pT [picotesla – unit of magnetic flux density or density of flow of magnetic field – em] range of EMFs in the symptomatic treatment of MS … indicates a lack of an association between the extent of demyelinating plaques on MRI scan and rate and extent of recovery in response to EMFs and supports the notion that dysfunction of synaptic conductivity due to neurotransmitter deficiency … contributes more significantly to the development of MS symptoms than the process of demyelination which clinically seem to represent an epiphenomenon (secondary happening) of the disease … [em – epiphenomenon def secondary happening, dependent or subject to – an event. In other words, lack of nerve connections is worse than damage to myelin!!! Nerve connections can be generated with visualization and – movement! It has been proven (see Lipton & Schwartz above) that the weak magnetic fields of thought and movement cause new connections in the nervous system. If you decide to learn to play the piano … practise, and the required connections are made! em]